Veterinary Neuropathology: Essentials Of Theory & Practice

Item Information
Item#: 9780470670569
Edition 01
Author Vandevelde, Marc Et Al.
Cover Hardback
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Introducing the theoretical and practical basics of veterinary neuropathology, this concise and well illustrated book is an essential basic diagnostic guide for pathologists, neurologists and diagnostic imaging specialists. It presents readers with strategies to deal with neuropathological problems, showing how to interpret gross and histological lesions using a systematic approach based on pattern recognition.<
/>It starts with an overview of the general principles of neuroanatomy, neuropathological techniques, basic tissue reaction patterns, and recognition of major lesion patterns. The book goes on to cover vascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, trauma, congenital malformations, metabolic-toxic diseases, neoplasia and degenerative diseases mainly of the central nervous system. In the respective chapters pathologists can quickly find information to support their daily diagnostic workup for both small and large domestic species. Based on the authors’ extensive diagnostic and post graduate teaching experience as well as the inclusion of MRI as it relates to neuropathology, this book also offers a comprehensive but basic analysis of veterinary neuropathology that neurologists and other MRI users will find very useful.<
/>• An essential manual for daily diagnostic work<
/>• Richly illustrated with high quality colour gross, histological and MRI images<
/>• Includes a section on the function and use of MRI (by Johann Lang, DECVDI)<
/>• Accompanied by a website presenting MRI sequences for interpretation and correlation with neuropathological findings edited by Johann Lang (University of Bern, Switzerland) and Eric Wiesner (University of California, Davis, USA)

Table of Contents
Preface ixForeword x1 General neuropathology 1 1.1 Principles of neuroanatomy for diagnostic neuropathologists 11.1.1 Anatomical orientation by using the ventricular system 11.1.2 Major anatomical regions of interest 21.1.3 Histological neuroanatomy 71.2 Neuropathological techniques 111.2.1 Necropsy techniques 111.2.2 Brain sectioning, macroscopic inspection and sampling for histology 121.3 Basic tissue reaction patterns 141.3.1 Reactions of neurons to injury 141.3.2 Oligodendrocytes 201.3.3 Astrocytes 201.3.4 Microglia/macrophages 221.3.5 CSF spaces 231.3.6 Blood vessels 231.3.7 Disturbance of water balance: edema 241.3.8 Artifacts, postmortem degeneration, pseudolesions and old age 261.4 Recognizing major lesion patterns 281.4.1 The major lesion patterns 281.4.2 Lesion distribution pattern 311.4.3 Classifi cation of neurological diseases 311.4.4 General strategy 331.5 Neuropathology in the clinics: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 331.5.1 Basic MRI physics 331.5.2 Principles of interpretation 34Further reading 36Neuropathology general 36Neurology/functional neuroanatomy 36Neuroanatomy 37Techniques for PNS and muscle 37Basic tissue reaction patterns 37Edema 37Artifacts, pseudolesions, old age 37Magnetic resonance imaging 372 Vascular disorders 38 2.1 Pathophysiology of ischemia 382.2 General strategy for diagnosing vascular lesions 382.3 Common vascular lesions 392.3.1 Vascular lesions of the
ain 392.3.2 Vascular lesions of the spinal cord 442.3.3 Ischemia in the peripheral nervous system and muscles 46Further reading 46Cere
al infarcts 46Hemorrhage 46Hypertensive encehalopathy 46Fi
ocartilagenous emboli 47Aortic thrombosis 473 Inflammatory diseases 48 3.1 Pathophysiology of inflammation 483.1.1 Entry and effect of infectious agents in the nervous system 483.1.2 Immune reaction of the host against the infectious agent in the CNS 483.1.3 Morphological aspects of the immune response 493.2 General strategy for diagnosis of inflammatory lesions 503.2.1 Recognizing major inflammatory reaction patterns 513.2.2 Determining the distribution pattern of the lesions 523.2.3 Specifi c features 523.3 Common CNS infections 543.3.1 Neurotropic viral infections 543.3.2 Viral granulomatous inflammation 583.3.3 Viral vasculitis 603.3.4 Viral leukoencephalitis 613.3.5 Bacterial infections 633.3.6 Mycotic and algal infections 683.3.7 Protozoal infections 693.3.8 Helminth infections 703.4 Non-infectious and immune-mediated inflammatory lesions 723.4.1 Definition 723.4.2 Neurological diseases assumed to be immune-mediated 73Further reading 79General 79Neurotropic viral infections 79Viral granulomatous infections 79Viral vasculitis 79Demyelinating viral infections 79Bacterial infections 79Fungal infections 80Protozoal infections 80Helminth infections 80Non-infectious and Immune-mediated inflammatory disorders 804 Trauma 81 4.1 Pathophysiology of CNS trauma 814.1.1 Pathogenesis of
ain trauma 814.1.2 Pathogenesis of spinal cord trauma 824.2 General strategy for diagnosis of traumatic CNS lesions 844.3 Traumatic nervous system diseases 854.3.1 Trauma of the
ain 854.3.2 Traumatic spinal cord lesions 874.3.3 Trauma in the peripheral nervous system 89Further reading 90Pathophysiology of CNS trauma 90Brain trauma 91Interverte
al disc disease 91Spinal malformations 91Wobbler syndrome 91Other causes of cord compression 91Cauda equina syndrome 915 Congenital malformations 92 5.1 Pathophysiology 925.1.1 Ontogeny of the CNS 925.1.2 Etiology 925.2 General strategy for diagnosing anomalies of the CNS 935.3 Common malformations 935.3.1 Neural tube closure defects 935.3.2 Defects of fore
ain induction 945.3.3 Neuronal migration disorders and sulcation defects 955.3.4 Disorders of proliferation or size 965.3.5 Encephaloclastic defects 975.3.6 Malformations in the caudal fossa and spinal cord 975.3.7 Congenital hydrocephalus and other anomalies of CSF pathways 100Further reading 104Neural tube closure defects 104Defects of fore
ain induction 104Neuronal migration disorders and sulcation defects 104Encephaloclastic defects 104Cerebellar hypoplasia 104Dandy Walker syndrome 104Chiari malformation, Syringomyelia 104Hydrocephalus 104Arachnoidal and ependymal cysts 1056 Metabolic–toxic diseases 106 6.1 General strategy for diagnosis of metabolic–toxic lesions 1066.1.1 The major patterns 1066.1.2 Further differential diagnosis 1066.2 Encephalomalacias/myelomalacias 1086.2.1 Polioencephalomalacia (PE) or cere
ocortical necrosis (CCN) 1086.2.2 Polioencephalomalacia of subcortical structures and
ainstem 1146.2.3 Poliomyelomalacia 1156.2.4 Leukoencephalomalacias 1166.2.5 Encephalomalacias involving both gray and white matter 1176.3 Acquired metabolic–toxic selective lesions 1186.3.1 Neuronal degeneration 1186.3.2 Axonal degeneration 1216.3.3 Myelin degeneration 1216.4 Spongy degeneration 1226.5 Metabolic–toxic lesions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and skeletal muscle 1246.5.1 Metabolic–toxic neuropathies 1256.5.2 Metabolic–toxic myopathies 125Further reading 126General 126Polioencephalomalacia large animals 126Polioencephalomalacia in small animals 126Hippocampal necrosis and sclerosis 126Subcortical and
ainstem encephalomalacias 126Selenium poisoning 126Equine leukomalacia 126Enterotoxemia 126CO poisoning 127Metabolic toxic neuronal degenerations 127Grass sickness 127Acquired lysosomal storage diseases 127Metabolic–toxic axonal degenerations 127Irradiated feed-induced myelinopathy in cats 127Toxic spongy degenerations 127Hepatic encephalopathy 127Toxic peripheral neuropathies 127Metabolic peripheral neuropathies 128Matabolic–toxic myopathies 1287 Neoplasia 129 7.1 General strategy for diagnosis of neoplastic lesions 1297.1.1 Clinic and diagnostic imaging 1297.1.2 Interpretation of gross findings 1297.1.3 Diagnosis 1307.1.4 Grading 1337.2 Tumors of neuroepithelial origin 1337.2.1 Astrocytomas 1337.2.2 Oligodendroglioma 1377.2.3 Mixed gliomas (oligoastrocytomas) 1397.2.4 Ependymoma 1407.2.5 Choroid plexus tumors (papillomas and carcinomas) 1427.2.6 Neuronal and mixed neuronal– glial tumors 1437.2.7 Em
yonal tumors 1447.3 Tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 1457.3.1 Benign PNST 1457.3.2 Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) 1477.4 Tumors of the meninges 1477.4.1 Meningioma 1477.4.2 Granular cell tumor 1507.4.3 Mesenchymal tumors 1517.5 Lymphomas and hematopoietic tumors 1517.5.1 Primary T and B cell lymphomas 1517.5.2 Intravascular lymphoma 1517.5.3 Metastatic lymphoma 1527.5.4 Primary CNS histiocytic sarcoma 1527.6 Germ cell tumors 1527.6.1 Germinoma 1527.6.2 Teratoma 1537.7 Em
yonal tumors of nonneuroepithelial origin 1537.7.1 Thoracolumbar spinal cord tumor (ectopic nephroblastoma) 1537.8 Secondary or metastatic tumors 154Further reading 155General 155Glial tumors 155Choroid plexus tumors 155Neuronal tumors 155Em
yonal tumors 155PNS tumors 155Meningiomas 155Granular cell tumor 155Mesenchymal tumors 155Lymphomas and hemapoetic tumors 156Germ cell tumors 156Nephroblastoma 156Metastatic tumors 1568 Degenerative diseases 157 8.1 General strategy for differential diagnosis of degenerative lesions 1578.1.1 Recognizing the major patterns 1578.1.2 Further analysis 1578.1.3 Diagnosis 1598.2 Degeneration of neurons 1598.2.1 General aspects 1598.2.2 Motor neuron diseases 1598.2.3 Cerebellar degenerations 1628.2.4 Other neuronal degenerations 1658.3 Axonal degenerations 1668.3.1 Wallerian-like degenerative axonopathies 1668.3.2 Axonopathies with prominent axonal swelling 1718.4 Myelin disorders 1738.4.1 Leukodystrophies 1738.4.2 Myelin dysgenesis 1778.5 Storage diseases 1788.5.1 Lysosomal storage diseases 1788.5.2 Neuronal ceroid lipofucsinoses (NCL) 1818.5.3 Lafora’s disease 1818.5.4 Acquired lysosomal storage diseases 1828.6 Spongiform encephalopathies 1828.6.1 Transmissible degenerative diseases 1828.6.2 Neuropathology of TSE 1838.6.3 TSEs in domestic animals 1848.7 Spongy degenerations 1858.7.1 Defi nition and general morphological features 1858.7.2 Spongy degeneration in
anchedchain organic acidurias 1868.7.3 Spongy degenerations of other causes 1878.8 Selective symmetrical encephalomalacias (SSE) 1878.8.1 General morphological features 1878.8.2 Mitochondrial encephalopathies in people and similar lesions in animals 1878.9 Degenerative diseases of the peripheral nervous system and muscle 1898.9.1 Degenerative polyneuropathies 1898.9.2 Degenerative myopathies 189Further reading 190Motor neuron diseases 190Cerebellar degenerations 190Other neuronal degenerations 190Alzheimer disease 190Wallerian-like axonal degenerations 190Degenerative myelopathy in old dogs 190Wallerian-like degeneration in large animals 191Neuroaxonal dystrophy 191Leukodystrophies 191Dysmyelination 191Lysosomal storage diseases 191Spongiform encephalopathies 191Spongy degenerations 191Selective symmetrical encephalomalacias 192Degenerative diseases of the PNS and muscles 192Index 193This book is accompanied by a companion website: which is maintained by the Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Dept of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern,