Etiology-Based Dental & Craniofacial Diagnostics

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Item#: 9781118912126
Edition 01
Author Kjaer, Inger
Cover Hardback
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Etiology-Based Dental and Craniofacial Diagnosticsexplores the role of em
yology and fetal pathology in the assessment, diagnosis, and subsequent treatment planning of a wide range of disorders in the dentition and craniofacial region. Initial chapters cover various aspects of normal dental and craniofacial development, providing the necessary biological background for understanding abnormal patient cases. Chapters then focus on the etiology behind a wide range of cases observed in everyday practice-including deviations in tooth morphology and number, tooth eruption, root and crown resorption, and craniofacial malformations, disruptions and dysplasia. Unique new work from a leading authority in orthodontics, craniofacial em
yology and fetal pathologyDemonstrates how human prenatal development offers unique insights into postnatal diagnosis and treatmentClinical significance and implications are highlighted in summaries at the end of each chapterIdeal for postgraduate students in orthodontics, paediatric dentistry and oral medicine

Table of Contents
Preface, ixIntroduction, xiLimited access to human material, xiContent and structure of the book, xiAcknowledgments, xii1 Craniofacial development and the body axis: normal and pathological aspects from early prenatal to postnatal life, 1 Body axis pre- and postnatally, 1Germ disk and notochord, 1Formation of the verte
al column, 1Cervical spine pre- and postnatally, 1The interrelationship between the body axis and the cranium, 2Craniofacial development pre- and postnatally, 4Cranial base (excluding the sella turcica), 4Sella turcica, 7Maxilla, 8Mandible, 12Theca cranii, 15Vomeral bone, 16Nasal bones, 17Temporal bone, 18Craniofacial morphology and growth, 19Highlights and clinical relevance, 19Further reading, 192 Craniofacial development and the
ain: normal and pathological aspects from early prenatal to postnatal life, 21 Central nervous system in relation to neurocranial development pre- and postnatally, 21Brain, 21Spinal cord, 24Trigeminal ganglia, 26Vomeronasal organs, 26Pituitary gland and sella turcica, 28Peripheral nervous system pre- and postnatally, 32Jaw innervation and bone formation, 32Highlights and clinical relevance, 34Further reading, 353 Developmental fields in the cranium and alveolar process, 37 Definition of developmental field, 37Developmental fields in the cranium, 37The midaxial cranium, 37The paraaxial cranium, 37Frontonasal field, 37Maxillary field and palatine field, 38Mandibular field, 40Theca field, 41Occipital field, 41How can craniofacial fields be proven?, 42Frontonasal field, 42Maxillary and palatine field, 42Mandibular field, 43Theca field, 43Occipital field, 43Developmental fields in the alveolar process, 44The upper jaw and the dentition, 44The lower jaw and the dentition, 44Highlights and clinical relevance, 45Further reading, 454 Tooth development and tooth maturation from early prenatal to postnatal life, 46 Histological evaluation of early tooth development, 46Tissues involved in dental bud formation, 46Inner enamel epithelium and hard tissue formation, 46Outer enamel epithelium and crown follicle, 46Root mem
ane and root development, 48Sequences in prenatal tooth formation, 49Radiographic evaluation of normal dental maturation, 49Radiographic appearance of prenatal crowns before GA 22 weeks, 50Radiographic appearance of postnatal dental maturation, 50Clinical evaluation of dental maturity, 52Bilateral agreement in tooth maturation, 52Tooth formation from the initial stages to the eruption stages: relation to fields, gender, age, and skeletal maturity, 52Similarities and differences in primary and permanent dental development, 53Highlights and clinical relevance, 53Further reading, 555 Periodontal mem
ane and peri-root sheet, 56 Periodontal mem
ane, 56Peri-root sheet, 56Definition, 56Composition and function, 56The peri-root sheet in the primary and permanent dentition, 56Highlights and clinical relevance, 58Further reading, 606 Normal tooth eruption and alveolar bone formation, 61 Tooth eruption mechanism and alveolar bone formation, 61Preemergence phase, 61Tooth eruption and jaw growth, 66Jaw size and space, 66Eruption sequences in the primary and permanent dentition, 68Bilaterality, 70Early and late eruption, 70Highlights and clinical relevance, 71Further reading, 727 Etiology-based diagnostics: methods and classification of abnormal development, 73 Why use etiology-based diagnostics?, 73Definitions of key words, 73Etiology, 73Other key words, 76Analyzing the dentition, oral cavity, and cranium: practical guide, 77Anamnestic record, 77Diagrams for diagnostics, 80Highlights and clinical relevance, 80Further reading, 808 Deviation in tooth morphology and color: normal and pathological variations including syndromes, 81 Primary dentition: crown, root, and pulp, 81Malformation of incisors, canines, and molars, 81Disruption in the primary dentition, 81Dysplasia in the primary dentition, 87Permanent dentition: crown, root, and pulp, 88Malformation of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, 88Disruption in the permanent dentition, 98Dysplasia in the permanent dentition, 106Abnormal dental development: fields and bilateralism, 107How to analyze the etiology behind deviation in tooth morphology: is it malformation, disruption or dysplasia?, 109Highlights and clinical relevance, 109Further reading, 1109 Deviations in tooth number: normal and pathological variations including syndromes, 111 Agenesis: possible etiologies, 111Agenesis of the primary and permanent dentition: hypodontia, 111Primary dentition agenesis, 111Permanent dentition agenesis, 112Syndromes, disruption, dysplasia, and hypodontia, 114Supernumerary teeth: possible etiologies, 118Supernumerary teeth in the primary and permanent dentition: hyperdontia, 118Primary dentition supernumeraries, 118Permanent dentition supernumeraries, 118Syndromes, dysplasia, and supernumerary teeth, 120How to analyze the etiology behind deviation in tooth number, 120Highlights and clinical relevance, 123Further reading, 12410 Tooth eruption and alveolar bone formation: abnormal patterns including syndromes, 125 Pathological eruption of primary teeth, 125Abnormal times for eruption, 125Total failure to erupt, 125Arrested eruption of single teeth, 125Pathological eruption of permanent teeth, 125Abnormal times for eruption, 125Ectopic eruption of maxillary canines, 126Ectopic eruption of mandibular canines, 127Transposition, 129Ectopic eruption of molars, premolars, and other teeth, 129Arrested eruption after trauma, 129Arrested eruption due to lack of space, 131Arrested eruption due to obstacles in the eruption pathway, 131Primary retention of molars, premolars, and incisors, 132Secondary retention of molars, premolars, and incisors, 134Primary failure of tooth eruption, 136Retention of teeth due to virus attack, 136Retention due to nonshedding of primary teeth, 137Abnormal eruption in syndromes and dysplasia, 137Amelogenesis imperfecta, 137Ectodermal dysplasia, 139Linear scleroderma en coup de sa
e, 139Segmental odontomaxillary/mandibular dysplasia, 139Eruption and heredity, 139Eruption problems in both dentitions, 142Localized abnormal alveolar bone formation, 143Juvenile periodontitis: theory and heredity, 143Hypophosphatasia and Papillon&Lefèvre, 143Why analyze the etiology behind abnormal eruption?, 145Highlights and clinical relevance, 147Further reading, 14711 Root and crown resorption: normal and abnormal pattern including syndromes, 149 Tooth resorption theory, 149Ectodermal tissue, 149Mesodermal or ectomesenchymal tissue, 150Neuroectodermal tissue, 150Resorption in the primary dentition, 151Pattern of resorption, 151Shedding times, 152Resorption in the permanent dentition, 156When does resorption occur in normally developed individuals?, 156Dentitions especially susceptible to root resorption, 156Root resorption and heredity: short roots or resorbed roots?, 158Root resorption in syndromes, dysplasia, and disruptions, 160Prevention of root resorption in the permanent dentition, 160Other examples of resorption, 162Postemergence resorption, 162Collum resorption, 162Aggressive resorption, 162Preemergence resorption, 162Crown resorption before emergence, 162Conclusion, 163How to analyze the etiology behind abnormal root resorption in the permanent dentition, 164Highlights and clinical relevance, 166Further reading, 16612 Apparently normal nonsyndromic dentitions are phenotypically different: the interrelationship between deviations in the dentition and craniofacial profile, 168 Introduction, 168Heredity and the dentition, 168Agenesis and supernumerarity, 168Morphology, 168Eruption, 168Resorption, 168Dentitions with agenesis of single teeth, 168Dentitions with multiple tooth agenesis, 170Dentitions with macrodontic maxillary central incisors, 171Dentitions with supernumerary teeth, 171Dentitions with ectopic canines, 172Buccal ectopia, 172Palatal ectopia, 172Dentitions with transpositions, 173Dentitions with arrested eruption of primary molars, 174Dentitions suitable for tooth transplantation, 174Dentitions with arrested eruption of permanent teeth, 174Primary retention, 174Secondary retention, 175Primary failure of tooth eruption, 175Dentitions with persistence of a primary molar in adulthood, 176Dentitions with idiopathic collum resorption, 176Highlights and clinical relevance, 176Further reading, 17613 Craniofacial syndromes and malformations: prenatal and postnatal observations, 177 Holoprosencephaly/solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome, 177Prenatal, 177Postnatal, 177Cerebellar hypoplasia/cri-du-chat syndrome, 180Prenatal, 180Postnatal, 182Myelomeningoceles/spina bifida and hydrocephalus, 185Prenatal, 185Postnatal, 185Down&s syndrome (trisomy 21), 186Prenatal, 186Postnatal, 187Turner&s syndrome, 187Prenatal, 187Postnatal, 187Fragile X syndrome, 187Prenatal, 187Postnatal, 188Crouzon&s syndrome, 188Prenatal, 188Postnatal, 189DiGeorge&s/velocardiofacial syndrome, 189Prenatal, 189Postnatal, 189Cleft lip and palate, 190Cleft lip: pre- and postnatal findings, 190Isolated cleft palate: pre- and postnatal findings, 190Combined cleft lip and palate: pre- and postnatal findings, 192Cleft lip and palate etiologies, 193Comparison between pre- and postnatal findings: results and restrictions, 194Results, 194Restrictions, 194Malformations: nonsyndromic examples, 194Highlights and clinical relevance, 199Further reading, 20014 Craniofacial disruptions: prenatal and postnatal observations, 202 Prenatal disruptions, 202Amniotic band: sequence, 202Virus infection and maternal alcohol intake, 202Postnatal disruptions, 202Premature birth, 202Trauma, 202Virus and bacterial attack, 202Brain tumors and radiation/chemotherapy, 203Acromegaly, 203Highlights and clinical relevance, 204Further reading, 20615 Craniofacial dysplasia: prenatal and postnatal observations, 207 Endochondral and intramem
anous bone dysplasia in the cranium, 207Chondrodystrophy, 207Osteogenesis imperfecta, 207Osteosclerosis, 207Hypophosphatemic rickets, 211Dysostosis cleidocranialis, 211Dysplasia in nonosseous tissue, 211Ectodermal dysplasia, 211Localized scleroderma en coup de sa
e, 211Amelogenesis imperfecta, 212Dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentin dysplasia, 212Suture dysplasia, 214Highlights and clinical relevance, 214Further reading, 21616 Hard tissue as a diagnostic tool in medicine, 217 Introduction, 217Perspectives for prenatal craniofacial pathology, 217Perspectives for perinatal and pediatric pathology, 218Perspectives for clinical and basic research, 219The prenatal cranium as a predictor for postnatal development, 219The dentition as a diagnostic tool in medicine, 220Association between dental and craniofacial development, 220Perspectives for anthropology, 221Conclusion, 222Further reading, 22317 Clinical cases and unanswered questions, 224 Clinical cases, 224Conditions in diagnostics, treatment planning, and outcome, 224Optimal treatment situation, 224Observation of the condition, 224Nonoptimal treatment situations, 224Examples of diagnostics and treatment of eruption problems, 225Problems in permanent molar eruption: later diagnosed as primary retention, 225Problems in permanent molar eruption: later diagnosed as secondary retention, 225Problems in permanent molar eruption: later diagnosed as primary failure of eruption, 225Problems in premolar eruption, 226Eruption problems can be a sign of susceptibility to root resorption, 230Eruption problems caused by supernumerary teeth, 230Unanswered questions, 230"What is this?", 230"Can medication influence tooth formation?", 232Further reading, 233Index, 235